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Common Dental Problems in Dogs

Dental issues are among the most naturally occurring health problems in dogs. In this article, our Fayetteville vets discuss common dental concerns seen in dogs, as well as how they can be treated and prevented.

Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease refers to the deterioration of the gum and bone that surround the tooth. This most commonly occurs when untreated plaque and tartar stick to the tooth and make their way beneath the gum line. 

This disease starts in the form of gingivitis and develops into periodontal disease as the gum and bone around the tooth deteriorate. As this occurs, pockets around the tooth can develop, allowing food and bacteria to collect below the tooth. If left unattended, dangerous infections can arise and the teeth will begin to fall out.

Common symptoms of canine periodontitis include:

  • Discolored teeth (brown or yellow)
  • Loose or missing teeth
  • Bad breath
  • Weight loss
  • Inflamed or bleeding gums
  • Irritability
  • Excessive drooling
  • Blood on chew toys or in the water bowl
  • Favoring one side of the mouth when chewing
  • “Ropey” or bloody saliva
  • Reduced appetite
  • Problems keeping food in the mouth

If you notice any of these symptoms in your dog, please contact a veterinarian.

Plaque & Tartar Buildup

Just like humans, dogs will accumulate plaque and tartar buildup over time, especially without regular cleanings. Plaque is a whitish substance made up primarily of bacteria, that if left on the tooth, will harden and turn a more yellowish color (also called calculus). Tartar will remain stuck to the tooth until it is scraped off with an object such as those used by a veterinarian.

Plaque and tartar buildup are the main causes of gum disease and tooth loss in dogs. The most common signs for a dog owner to look out for are gingivitis (very red and swollen gum line), discolored deposits on the teeth, and increasingly bad breath. As the dental disease gets worse, dogs may experience even worse breath as well as bleeding of the gums.

Tooth Fractures

With all of the chewing that dogs do whether they are eating or playing, it is not surprising that tooth fractures are a very common occurrence. Even everyday items that dogs use can result in a tooth fracture such as bones or hard plastic used to make toys.

Dog chew toys should be small enough that the dog doesn't have to entirely open its mouth, but large enough that there won't be a concern of accidentally swallowing or choking on the toy.

Oral Infections

An oral infection is an outcome of a pocket (usually around the root of the tooth) that has been filled with bacteria. Infections are primarily caused by periodontitis but can also be initiated due to trauma-induced chewing on hard or sharp objects. Some infections can be fatal as the bacteria makes its way to the bloodstream and cause organ disease/failure in the heart, liver, kidneys, or brain.

Preventing Dental Problems in Your Dog

Creating a dental care routine for your dog is a great way to maintain oral hygiene and prevent oral issues.

Introducing food or water additives is an easy way to improve and maintain the health and strength of their teeth and bones. Adjusting your dog's diet can also increase oral hygiene, even with small exchanges like providing dental chews instead of less healthy treats.

Brushing your dog's teeth regularly is an ideal tactic for dog owners to use. Although it is unrealistic, brushing their teeth every day would be best if your dog tolerates the process.

Be sure to bring your dog in for an oral hygiene cleaning and examination at least once every year. Some smaller breeds of dogs should go twice a year due to their teeth' shallow roots.

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. Please make an appointment with your vet to accurately diagnose your pet's condition.

Is your dog due for a dental cleaning and exam? Contact our Fayetteville vets to book an appointment for your pup.

New Patients Welcome

Fayette Veterinary Medical Center is accepting new patients! Our experienced vets are passionate about the health of Fayetteville companion animals. Get in touch today to book your pet's first appointment.

(770) 460-0090